At the start of each method invocation a frame for that method is created on the stack. This frame contains references to the calling frame and contains a magic number that is used to differentiate between compiled code invocations and interpreted invocations.
When an exception is thrown, the exception table of the current method is inspected. When an exception handler is found, the calculation stack is cleaned and code executing continues at the handler address.
When no suitable exception handler is found in the current method, the stackframe of the current method is destroyed and the process continues at the calling method.

When stacktrace of an exception is created from the frames of each method invocation. A class called VmStackFrame has exactly the same layout as a frame on the stack and is used to enumerate all method-invcocations.